Research

Published Research About the Flash Technique

Manfield P., Taylor G., Dornbush E., Engel L., and Greenwald R. (2024). Preliminary evidence for the acceptability, safety, and efficacy of the flash technique. Front. Psychiatry 14:1273704. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1273704M

Manfield, P., Lovett, J., Engel, L., & Manfield, D. (2017). Use of the flash technique in EMDR therapy: Four case examples. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(4), 195–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.11.4.195.

Wong, S-L. (2019). Flash technique group protocol for highly dissociative clients in a homeless shelter: A clinical report. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 20–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.20.

 

Shebini, N. (2019). Flash technique for safe desensitization of memories and fusion of parts in DID: Modifications and resourcing strategies. Frontiers of the Psychotherapy of Trauma and Dissociation. 3(2):151-164.

 

Wong, S-L. (2021). A model for the Flash Technique (FT) based on working memory and neuroscience research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(3).


Wong, S.-L., & Forman-Patel, H. (2022). Doing the flash technique without bilateral stimulation and without prompted blinking: Two vignettes. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 16(2), 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1891/emdr-2022-0001

 

Yasar, Alisan & Gundogmus, Ibrahim & Gündüz, Anil & Konuk, Emre. (2019). Investigation of the effect single session of” Flash Technique” at a group. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni, 29, 73-73.

Manfield, P., Engel, L., Greenwald, R., & Bullard, D.G. (2021). Flash Technique in a Scalable Low-Intensity Group Intervention for COVID-19 Related Stress in Healthcare Providers. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2).

  

Yasar, Alisan & Gundogmus, Ibrahim & Gündüz, Anil & Konuk, Emre. (2021). The Effects of Single Session EMDR Flash Technique Group Application on Traumatic Symptoms. The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences. 58(2), 41-46.

 

Brouwers, T.C., Matthijssen, S.J.M.A., de Jongh, A. (2021). The Effects of the Flash Technique Compared to Those of an Abbreviated Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Protocol on the Emotionality and Vividness of Aversive Memories. Frontiers in Psychology. 12:741163. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.741163


Konuk, Emre (2021)The Effectiveness of EMDR G-TEP and Flash Group Protocol as Early EMDR Interventions for PTSD Symptoms Following an Earthquake presented in June, 2021 at EMDR Europe Congress.​


*Cox, D., Fellows, J. L., & Goulding, J. M. (2022). Patient perspective on a novel psychological therapy approach (flash technique) for neurofibromatosis. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ced.15064

*This paper is open-access and available for download by following the link above.


*Yaşar, A. B., Emre Konuk, Kavakçı, Ö., Uygun, E., Gündoğmuş, İ., Taygar Afra, S., & Uludağ, E. (2022). A Randomized-Controlled Trial of EMDR Flash Technique on Traumatic Symptoms, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Life of Quality With Individuals Who Have Experienced a Traffic Accident. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.845481

*This paper is open-access and available for download by following the link above.

*Babaei, N., Kerry, C., Goode, K., Dang, K., Mirzadeh, P., Pirbaglou, M., Kirk, M. A., & Ritvo, P. (2023). Clinical assessment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in memory distress: Protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 12. https://doi.org/10.2196/38552

*This paper is open-access and available for download by following the link above.

*Avci, M. (2023). Investigation of the single session effect of flash technique on adolescents with exam anxiety: A group practice. Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 7(1), 222–231. https://doi.org/10.47525/ulasbid.1239585

*This paper is open-access and available for download by following the link above.

*Avci, M., & Akbağ, G. (2023, June 4). A New Psychotherapy Approach for Norödermatit (Nerve Eczema): Flash Emdr Technique. 5th International Congress on Multidisciplinary Social Sciences. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371280794_A_New_Psychotherapy_Approach_for_Norodermatit_Nerve_Eczema_Flash_Emdr_Technique

*This paper is open-access and available for download by following the link above.


Manfield P., Taylor G., Dornbush E., Engel L., and Greenwald R. (2024). Preliminary evidence for the acceptability, safety, and efficacy of the flash technique. Front. Psychiatry 14:1273704. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1273704M

 

Objectives: This study reports on four similar studies intended to explore the acceptability, safety, and efficacy of the flash technique (FT), a method of rapidly reducing the intensity of a disturbing memory or image, with minimal subjective disturbance for subjects during the process. Of the four studies, two were conducted during FT trainings in the United States, one in Australia, and one in Uganda. Methods: The studies involve pre-, post-, and follow-up repeated-measures design to determine the effectiveness of a 15-min FT intervention. A total of 654 subjects were asked to think of a disturbing memory and then participate in a structured experience of an FT. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a brief application of an FT would be safe and effective in significantly reducing their disturbance. In each study, subjects rated their disturbing memories on a 0-to-10 scale, with zero representing no disturbance at all and 10 representing the worst they could imagine. Then, they took part in a 15-min group practicum where they were guided in a self-administering FT with no individual supervision or support. Results: In all four studies, the mean reduction in disturbance exceeded two-thirds, the results were significant (p < 0.001), and the effect size was very large. Of the 813 sessions (654 subjects) represented in these studies, only two subjects reported slight increases in disturbances, and both of these subjects reported reductions in disturbance in their second FT experiences 2 h later. At a 4-week follow-up, mean disturbance levels in all four studies indicated maintenance of benefit or slightly further reduction of mean disturbance levels. An 18-month follow-up study with a subgroup of subjects who initially reported a high level of memory-related distress found similar maintenance of gains as well as symptom reduction. Conclusion: These findings provide preliminary evidence of acceptability, safety, and efficacy of FT; therefore, further study is warranted.


Manfield, P., Lovett, J., Engel, L., & Manfield, D. (2017). Use of the flash technique in EMDR therapy: Four case examples. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(4), 195–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.11.4.195.

 

This article introduces the flash technique, a new technique used during the preparation phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to facilitate processing of intense, traumatic memories that clients might otherwise be resistant to access. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this technique may make it possible for clients to access these memories initially in a minimally disturbing way, reducing their emotional intensity so that they can then be more easily and fully processed using EMDR therapy. The technique appears to be easily tolerated by clients of all ages, including children; and to be rapid and relatively painless for clients, even those with particularly disturbing target memories; and can be easily taught to clinicians. It has the distinct feature that clients who are avoiding a terribly disturbing memory can be offered a way of processing it without having to bring it clearly to mind. Four case examples, in which the technique was used by four different clinicians, are presented briefly. Suggestions are made for further study. This article hypothesizes various mechanisms of action and discusses the effects in terms of memory reconsolidation theory. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a treatment developed and introduced by Francine Shapiro (1989) originally for the treatment of clients who have experienced single-incident traumas that resulted in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). EMDR therapy (Shapiro, 2001) is now recognized as an effective method of treatment for a wide range of trauma-related psychological conditions. During EMDR therapy, the client focuses on the disturbing incident while performing a present-time, dual attention task, most commonly rapid eye movements (EM) guided by the bilateral stimulation (BLS) of visually following the therapist’s moving finger. The EMDR protocol involves eight phases: client history, preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure, and reevaluation.


Wong, S-L. (2019). Flash technique group protocol for highly dissociative clients in a homeless shelter: A clinical report. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 20–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.20.

 

The Flash Technique is a new protocol for use in the preparation phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to quickly reduce the emotional intensity of traumatic memories, prior to full processing with EMDR. This report presents results from a Flash Technique group for five highly dissociative, currently sober addicts in a men’s shelter. This group was an attempt to provide an affordable, trauma-focused intervention for the homeless. As part of the intake, each client met individually with the therapist for 30 minutes, to learn to use the flash technique to process a traumatic memory. Three inventories were used to measure treatment outcome: the Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT), the Dissociative Experience Survey (DES-II), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Clients filled out the surveys 3 weeks before the start of the group and had their individual sessions 2 weeks before the start of the group. The DES and BDI-II were repeated at the beginning of the eighth session of the group. Clients’ surveys showed a decline in scores after seven sessions of therapy: the DES scores dropped from 39.07 (standard deviation [SD] = 23.01) to 20.48 (SD = 10.02) with d = 0.81 and the BDI-II scores dropped from 32.4 (SD = 11.01) to 13.2 (SD = 8.4) with d = 1.74. Pre- and 2-week posttreatment SPRINT surveys showed scores dropping from 28 [SD = 2.05] pretreatment to 15.75 [SD = 5.19] 2 weeks posttreatment, with d = 6.07.


Shebini, N. (2019), Flash technique for safe desensitization of memories and fusion of parts in DID: Modifications and resourcing strategies. Frontiers of the Psychotherapy of Trauma and Dissociation. 3(2):151-164

 

This paper explores the use of the Flash technique in the treatment of extreme trauma in Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) from satanic ritual abuse. The results include desensitization of trauma memories and the planned fusion of parts. I share my insights on safe application of the technique and modifications that can be used for highly fragmented DID clients and other complex trauma presentations. Strategies include ways to safely assess the severity of the memory, modifications in the Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) measurement, instructions in applying the technique, modes of bilateral stimulation and use of the conference room technique. Nine case sessions are documented demonstrating nine variations in use of the technique. I describe how to install an engaging activity in parts that cannot come up with a resource. Additionally, I write about the use of playful extra resourcing to strengthen the engaging activity, leading to “boosting” of the Flash therapy session and hence faster processing of trauma memories. I hope that colleagues working in the field of trauma and dissociation can find the tools and strategies in this paper helpful for their professional development and also for treatment of their clients.


Manfield, P., Engel, L., Greenwald, R., &amp; Bullard, D.G. (2021). Flash Technique in a Scalable Low-Intensity Group Intervention for COVID-19 Related Stress in Healthcare Providers, JEPR, May, 2021, Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2).

 

The flash technique (FT) is a low-intensity individual or group intervention that appears to rapidly lessen the distress of disturbing and traumatic memories. This paper reports on the safety and effectiveness of group FT with 77 healthcare providers and 98 psychotherapists impacted by working with COVID-19 patients. One-hour webinars included 30 minutes of psychoeducation and two guided 15-minute FT interventions, focused on participants’ most distressing pandemic-related memory. Before and after each 15-minute FT intervention, they rated that memory using the 11-point 0-to-10 subjective units of disturbance (SUD) scale. Results from both interventions were highly significant with large effect sizes (p < .001, Hedges’ g = 2.01, Hedges’ g = 2.39). No adverse reactions were reported. For 35 participants who processed the same memory in both interventions, the pre–post SUD scores from the beginning of intervention #1 to the end of intervention #2 showed a significant reduction with a large effect size (p < .001, Hedges’ g = 3.80). For this group, both intervention #1 and intervention #2 showed significant reductions with large effect sizes (p < .001, Hedges’ g = 2.00) (p < .001, Hedges’ g = 1.18). Follow-up SUD scores were obtained from 58 participants, with the mean disturbance level showing a significant further decrease. These findings provide preliminary evidence that group FT appears to safely provide rapid relief from disturbing memories. FT merits further research.


Wong, S-L. (2021). A model for the Flash Technique (FT) based on working memory and neuroscience research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, August, 2021.

 

This article presents a model for understanding how the Flash Technique (FT) may work in the brain and provides potential avenues for experimental confirmation. In the FT, the client reminds himself of a traumatic memory without dwelling on it but instead focuses on a positive engaging focus and then blinks his eyes as prompted by the therapist. Clients have reported signs of memory reconsolidation, for example, the memory getting blurry and a reduction in emotional response. While the originators of FT did not offer a detailed mechanism for FT, this article proposes that during the blinking, the patient’s periaqueductal gray (PAG) takes over, senses the reminder of the traumatic memory and reflexively triggers the amygdala. As part of a system suggested by Porges (2009) for neuroception, the PAG works reflexively to assess danger without going through the conscious brain. Recent fMRI data show that for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, there is enhanced connectivity from the amygdala to the left hippocampus. As a result, triggering the amygdala may, in turn, activate the left hippocampus, which may then provide a brief access to the traumatic memory. Given the brief access, there is not enough time for the amygdala to go into overactivation. The client remains calm while accessing the traumatic memory, thus setting up the prediction error necessary for memory reconsolidation. This process is repeated many times during blinking in FT to allow memory reconsolidation to proceed, in some cases, to completion. This model is open to experimental confirmation.


Wong, S.-L., & Forman-Patel, H. (2022). Doing the flash technique without bilateral stimulation and without prompted blinking: Two vignettes. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 16(2), 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1891/emdr-2022-0001

 

This article presents two vignettes on the successful use of the Flash Technique (FT) without bilateral

stimulation and prompted without blinking. FT was first developed as a protocol to quickly bring down the

emotional distress of a traumatic memory during the preparation phase of eye movement desensitization

and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, so that EMDR could proceed. A recent model for FT (Wong, 2021) proposes that, with FT, traumatized clients may be able to access their traumatic memory briefly, reflexively, and without the fear response, during blinking. This sets up a prediction error which, with repeated blinking, may lead to memory reconsolidation and processing of the traumatic memory. Since the access to the traumatic memory is reflexive and brief, the processing of the memory is outside of the awareness of the client and of the therapist, which is consistent with the practitioner’s and the client’s experience with FT. Wong’s model is based on published fMRI data from neuroscience and established concepts in working memory research, and the model will be reviewed in some detail in the article. However, it is also based on fMRI data for spontaneous and not-prompted blinking, and does not require bilateral stimulation, implying that processing could occur using FT without bilateral stimulation and without prompted blinking, relying instead only on spontaneous blinking. Our two vignettes provide two data points that support this aspect of Wong’s model.


Yasar, Alisan & Gundogmus, Ibrahim & Gündüz, Anil & Konuk, Emre. (2019). Investigation of the effect single session of” Flash Technique” at a group. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni, 29, 73-73

 

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) psychotherapy is now an effective method of treatment for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many protocols have been developed in EMDR therapy. Neurobiology of how bilateral stimulation benefits EMDR therapy is not yet fully understood. Philip Manfield developed Flash Technique by utilizing the background of EMDR therapy. This technique does not require trauma due to trauma therapy. Philip Manfield and his colleagues presented Flash Technique as an effective and comfortable practice in trauma therapy that can be easily applied to groups. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of one session of Flash Technique on the trauma symptoms. METHODS: 17 volunteers who are psychology students and psychiatry residents were included in the study. Pre-session PCL-5 and Olaylatin Effect scales were applied to all volunteers. 30- minute Flash Technical application was done. At the end of the first week and at the end of the first month, the scales were repeated. RESULTS: The decline in psychological trauma complaints of a single session Flash Technique group was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike trauma therapies, Flash Technique, which is thought to treat trauma without being subjected to trauma, is a very ambitious practice. In this present study, we have seen that this practice can be performed safely on the group and without questioning the traumas. Controlled studies are needed to observe the difference of this effect from placebo and other treatments.


Yasar, Alisan & Gundogmus, Ibrahim & Gündüz, Anil & Konuk, Emre. (2021). The Effects of Single Session EMDR Flash Technique Group Application on Traumatic Symptoms. The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences. 58. 41-46.

 

Introduction: Flash Technique method is an EMDR (Eye Movement Desensatization and Reprocessing) protocol specifically developed. In this protocol, there is little contact with the traumatic memories and focus is substantially on positive memories. For this reason, it might be convenient for group applications. In this study, we aimed at measuring the effects of EMDR Flash Technique group application on traumatic memories. Method: The sample of the study consists of 36 participants. On this sample, one-session of 90-120 minutes EMDR Flash Technique was applied. Participants were evaluated with Impacts of Events Scale (IES), PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and Sociodemographic Variables Form before, one week later and one month later following the EMDR Flash Technique group application. Results: Comparison of Subjective Unit of Disturbance (SUD) and IES scores obtained from measurements conducted before (SUD=6.08±1.69, IES-R=24.52±11.57), one week after (SUD=3.75±1.90, IES-R=14.13±11.78) and one month after (SUD=2.83±2.00, IES-R=9.86±11.84) EMDR Flash Technique application revealed statistically significant difference (SUD: p<0.001, IES-R: p<0.001 ). In addition, a statistically significant difference was found in the comparison of pre-session (24.38±17.78) and one month after session (11.44±11.06) PCL-5 scores (p<0.001). Conclusion: In this study, the effects of EMDR Flash Technique application, which we thought to be easy to apply and less risky, were analyzed in a group consisting of

36 participants, and there were significant improvements.


Brouwers, T.C., Matthijssen, S.J.M.A., de Jongh, A. (2021). The Effects of the Flash Technique Compared to Those of an Abbreviated Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Protocol on the Emotionality and Vividness of Aversive Memories. Frontiers in Psychology. 12:741163. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.741163


Introduction: The Flash technique is a novel intervention aimed at rapidly decreasing the subjective disturbance of an aversive memory, thereby serving as a potential way of treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The protocol is used to stimulate clients to engage in positive imagery while being discouraged to actively recollect the targeted disturbing memory. Previous research into the Flash technique’s efficacy shows promising results, yet controlled studies are lacking. Objectives: To test the efficacy of the Flash technique, it was compared to an abbreviated eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy protocol in a controlled experimental setting. We hypothesized that the Flash technique would lead to a larger decrease in the emotionality and vividness of an aversive autobiographical memory when compared to EMDR therapy. Our second hypothesis was that the procedure of the Flash technique would be evaluated more pleasant by its receiver. Method: The sample consisted of 60 non-clinical participants (mean age = 25.28 years; 73.33% female) who were able to recall an aversive autobiographical memory. They were randomized to either the Flash technique or the EMDR therapy condition. Measurements consisted of emotionality and vividness-ratings pre and post intervention, and at 1- week follow-up. Results: Bayesian analyses showed no differences between Flash and EMDR to the extent to which the emotionality and vividness of their memory was reduced. Afterward, the Flash technique was rated more pleasant than EMDR. Conclusion: The results support the claim that the Flash technique might be used as a brief and efficacious intervention for individuals suffering from disturbing memories. Although the results suggest that its efficacy does not differ from EMDR, the Flash technique seems to yield similar outcomes in a more pleasant way. Further research into its working mechanisms and in a clinical sample is required.


Yaşar, A. B., Emre Konuk, Kavakçı, Ö., Uygun, E., Gündoğmuş, İ., Taygar Afra, S., & Uludağ, E. (2022). A Randomized-Controlled Trial of EMDR Flash Technique on Traumatic Symptoms, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Life of Quality With Individuals Who Have Experienced a Traffic Accident. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.845481

The Flash Technique of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is widely recognized for its effectiveness in reducing the effects of emotional responses associated with traumatic memories. Using a randomized-controlled trial methodology, this study attempts to establish the efficacy of the EMDR Flash Technique. This study’s sample includes volunteers who were involved in traffic accidents and were given the randomized EMDR Flash Technique and Improving Mental Health Training for Primary Care Residents (mhGAP) Stress management module. The participants were given a socio-demographic data form, the Depression-Anxiety-Stress 21 scale (DASS-21), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale. Participants were evaluated using measurements taken before and after the application, as well as a one-month follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 36.20 (11.41) years and 82.1% (n = 32) were female. The DASS-21 Anxiety (η2 = 0.085), IES-R Intrusion (η2 = 0.101), Avoidance (η2 = 0.124), Total (η2 = 0.147), and WHOQOL-BREF Psychological (η2 = 0.106) score improvements of the EMDR Flash Technique group were shown to be statistically significant when compared to the mhGAP group. However, no statistically significant difference in the DASS-21 Depression, Stress, Impact of Event Scale-Revised Hyperarousal WHOQOL-BREF General Health, Physical, Social Relationships, and Environment component scores was reported between the two groups. The present study’s findings clearly demonstrate that the EMDR Flash technique, when applied to persons involved in traffic accidents, is successful in improving anxiety, intrusion, avoidance, total traumatic stress, and mental quality of life symptoms for at least 1 month. We believe that these findings will improve the reliability and applicability of the EMDR Flash Technique, which was tested for the first time in a clinical randomized-controlled trial (RCT).


Babaei, N., Kerry, C., Goode, K., Dang, K., Mirzadeh, P., Pirbaglou, M., Kirk, M. A., & Ritvo, P. (2023). Clinical assessment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in memory distress: Protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 12. https://doi.org/10.2196/38552


Background: Exposures to “traumatic” events are widespread and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive behavioral therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) are frequently used and validated behavioral PTSD treatments. Despite demonstrated effectiveness, highly upsetting memory reactions can be evoked, resulting in extensive distress and, sometimes, treatment dropout. In recent years, multiple treatment approaches have aimed at reducing such upsetting memory reactions to traumatic memories while therapeutic progress proceeds. One of these methods, the flash technique (FT), a modification of standard EMDR (S-EMDR), appears effective in distressing memory reduction. This study will examine FT-EMDR and S-EMDR efficacies when both methods are delivered via web-based video. Objective: This study aims to assess the relative efficacy of (web-based) FT-EMDR versus S-EMDR in reducing the PTSD symptoms, anxieties, and depression associated with traumatic memories at postintervention and 1-month follow-up. Methods: This double-blinded, web-based, 2-arm randomized controlled trial will employ self-report outcomes. A total of 90 participants will be identified from the web-based CloudResearch platform and randomly allocated to the experimental or comparison group. Inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) approved for engagement by the CloudResearch platform; (2) 25-60 years of age; (3) residing in Canada or the United States; (4) a recalled disturbing memory of an event >2 years ago that has not repeated and was moderately or more upsetting during occurrence; (5) memory moderately or more upsetting at baseline and not linked to an earlier memory that is equally or more than equally disturbing. Exclusion criteria are bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse or addiction in the past 3 months, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in the past 6 months. Interventions include guided video instruction of full FT or guided video of EMDR. Outcome measures are as follows: Primary outcome is PTSD symptoms that are measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5) at 1-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes are State Anxiety subscale of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at baseline, postintervention, and 1-month follow-up; Trait Anxiety subscale of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9); and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured at 1-month follow-up.Results: If, at 1-month follow-up, the web-based FT-EMDR intervention is more effective in reducing PTSD symptoms (as measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5) than EMDR, it may help reduce traumatic memory distress in multiple contexts. Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial will advance current understandings of PTSD symptoms and interventions that target traumatic memory–related distress


Avci, M. (2023). Investigation of the single session effect of flash technique on adolescents with exam anxiety: A group practice. Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 7(1), 222–231. https://doi.org/10.47525/ulasbid.1239585


The Flash Technique method is an EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) protocol specifically developed. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of the EMDR Flash Technique group application on test anxiety. In this study, the quantitative research method was used. The model was created by applying a comparative group experimental design of pre-test, procedure, post-test, and follow-up test. In this study, Child Depression Scale, Child and Adolescent Post Traumatic Response Scale, and Exam Anxiety Scale were also used. Based on the data, it was observed that the Flash Technique has a statistically significant effect on the test anxiety levels of adolescents (F (1.65-64.52) = 185.56; p <.05; η 2 =.826). Accordingly, 83% of the change in adolescents’

test anxiety levels was explained by the Flash Technique. On the other hand, it was seen that the Flash Technique has a statistically significant effect on the depression levels of adolescents (F (1.35-52.47) = 48.57; p < .05; η 2 =.555). Accordingly, 56% of the change in the depression levels of adolescents is explained by the Flash Technique. Finally, support the claim that the Flash Technique has a statistically significant effect on the post-traumatic reaction levels of adolescents (F (2-78) = 83.26; p < .05; η 2 =.681). Accordingly, 68% of the change in the post-traumatic reaction levels of adolescents is explained by the Flash Technique. The Flash Technique was found to be an effective

technique in reducing the test anxiety levels, post-traumatic stress reactions, and depression levels of adolescents.